There are many types of magnets, which are generally divided into permanent magnets and soft magnets. The magnets we call generally refer to permanent magnets.
Permanent magnets are divided into two categories:
The first category is: metal alloy magnets including neodymium iron boron magnets (Nd2Fe14B), samarium cobalt magnets (SmCo), aluminum nickel cobalt magnets (ALNiCO)
The second category is: Ferrite permanent magnet materials (Ferrite)
1. Neodymium iron boron magnet: It is the magnet with the highest commercial performance currently found. It is called Magneto. It has extremely high magnetic performance and its maximum magnetic energy product (BHmax) is more than 10 times higher than that of ferrite. Its own mechanical processing performance is also quite good. The working temperature can reach up to 200℃. Moreover, its texture is hard, its performance is stable, and its cost performance is very good, so its application is extremely wide. But because of its strong chemical activity, it must be treated with a surface coating. (Such as Zn, Ni, electrophoresis, passivation, etc.).
2. Ferrite magnet: Its main raw materials include BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19. Manufactured by ceramic technology, the texture is relatively hard and it is a brittle material. Due to the good temperature resistance, low price and moderate performance of ferrite magnets, it has become the most widely used permanent magnet.
3. Al-Ni-Co magnet: It is an alloy composed of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron and other trace metal elements. The casting process can be processed into different sizes and shapes, and the workability is very good. Cast AlNiCo permanent magnets have the lowest reversible temperature coefficient, and the working temperature can be as high as 600℃. Alnico permanent magnet products are widely used in various instruments and other applications.
4. Samarium cobalt (SmCo) is divided into SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 according to the composition. Due to the high price of its materials, its development is restricted. Samarium cobalt (SmCo), as a rare earth permanent magnet, not only has a high magnetic energy product (14-28MGOe), reliable coercivity and good temperature characteristics. Compared with neodymium iron boron magnets, samarium cobalt magnets are more suitable for working in high temperature environments.
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